The Johnstones rose to prominence and power by assisting the King in crushing the Douglas rebellion in 1455. The Black
Douglases virtually controlled southern Scotland and were perceived as a serious threat to the Stewart dynasty
The Johnstones fought the Black Douglases at Arkinholm in Dumfriesshire and participated in the King's siege of Threave
Castle in Kirkcudbright. The Douglases were attainted, their estates forfeited, and King James II "of the fiery face" rewarded
his supporters, including the Johnstones, with grants of former Douglas lands. Johnstone clansmen soon spread throughout upper
Annandale and into Lanarkshire. In 1542 Queen Mary of Guise erected the lands of the Laird of Johnstone into a free barony.
The Johnstones were listed as troublemakers on the West March in the "Roll of the clannis that hes capitanes chieffis
and chiftanes quhome on thai depend oftymes againis the willis of thair landislordis alsweill on the bordors as hielands and
some speale personis of braches of the saidis clannis" which was appended to a 1597 Act of the Parliament of Scotland
"For the quieting and keping in obedience of the disorderit subiectis inhabitantis of the bordors hielands and Ilis."
In 1578 the "nayme of Johnnstounis" appointed a council of twelve arbiters to settle internal disputes, all under the leadership
of their "chief and maister" the Laird of Johnstone. The council consisted of Johnstones of Carnsalloch, Craigieburn, Elsieshields,
Fairholm, Fingland, Howgill, Lockerbie, Marjoribanks, Millbank, Newton, Poldean and Wamphray. During the sixteenth century,
the clan was also organized in numerous "gangs," which changed form over time.
During the sixteenth century the Johnstones and the Maxwells competed for primacy in the Scottish West March. Johnstone
and Maxwell chiefs each served at various times as Wardens of the Scottish West March. Their respective clans continued a
deadly blood feud for almost a century. In late 1593 John, seventh Lord Maxwell, Earl of Morton, sometime collaborator with
the Spanish armada and Warden of the Scottish West March, assembled 2,000 armed horsemen and, displaying the King's banner,
invaded the mountainous district of Annandale, land of the Johnstones. Whatever the official reason, Lord Maxwell's personal
intention was once and for all to destroy his family's ancient enemies and rivals for power in southwestern Scotland.
Sir James Johnstone of Dunskellie, Chief of the Johnstones, received advance warning of the approaching army and realized
that his clan would soon have a desperate fight for continued existence. He summoned help from Grahams, Scotts, Carrutherses,
Irvings, Elliots and others, and quickly raised a force of perhaps 800. Among those who came to the aid of the clan was the
Chief's eleven-year-old kinsman, Robert Johnstone of Raecleuch. Lord Maxwell had offered his followers a reward for the head
or hand of the Laird of Johnstone, and Sir James in turn offered his followers a reward for the head or hand of Lord Maxwell.
On December 6, 1593 the Maxwell army approached the Johnstone town of Lockerbie near a place called Dryfe Sands. Sir James
kept most of his men hidden, but sent a handful of horsemen to provoke the Maxwell vanguard, then retreat. When the vanguard
broke ranks in pursuit with loud cries of victory, the main body of Johnstones made a sudden, desperate charge, catching the
Maxwells off guard and driving the disorganized vanguard into the main force. The Johnstones then savagely pursued their enemies
into the streets of Lockerbie and into the Water of Dryfe, slaughtering some 700 of the Maxwells and slashing others with
downward sword strokes which caused gruesome facial wounds known as "Lockerbie licks."
In the midst of the carnage Lord Maxwell begged for mercy and offered to surrender, but the Johnstones cut off his outstretched
arm and slew him. It is said that the Laird of Johnstone affixed the head and right hand of Lord Maxwell to the battlements
of Lochwood Tower as bloody trophies of the Johnstones' overwhelming victory at the Battle of Dryfe Sands.
In 1608 a meeting was arranged for a reconciliation of Sir James Johnstone of Dunskellie and Lord Maxwell, son of the chief
who was killed at the Battle of Dryfe Sands. Precautions were taken for each party to bring only one attendant. During the
interview, Lord Maxwell suddenly drew a pistol from under his cloak and shot the Johnstone chief in the back with two poisoned
bullets, mortally wounding him. After escaping to France, Lord Maxwell was finally apprehended and publicly beheaded in Edinburgh
for his "murder under trust" of Sir James Johnstone of Dunskellie.
The Johnstone Clan has its roots in the Anglo-Scottish borders region, notably in Annandale in the county of Dumfriesshire.
In 1124, King David I of Scotland granted to the first Robert de Bruce, a Norman, the Lordship of Annandale and 200,000
acres. It was Bruce’s descendant, the eighth Robert de Bruce, who was destined to lead the Scots in their heroic fight
for independence from England. The de Bruce family was to play a pivotal role in the identification and development of the
Johnstones, the two families becoming close allies over the years. Five hundred years after the title of the Lordship of Annandale
had been granted to the De Bruce family, King Charles II was to grant it to Lord James Johnstone, the Chief of the Johnstone
It was not customary before the Normans arrived in these islands in the 11th century for people to have surnames. A man
was normally only known by his Christian name, e.g. John, David, etc. If we remember also that a man would be known by the
name other people gave him (i.e. not one he had invented himself), it is easy to understand how the man’s son
would be named by reference to his father, e.g. John’s son, David’s son, giving us the origin of the names
Johnson and Davidson. (A good guide as to whether such patronymics were of Northern British or Southern British
origin : if "son" is added to a Christian name, the resultant surname normally indicates a family of Northern British
origin, while the addition of "s" alone to a Christian name gives a surname of Southern British origin. Respective
examples are Johnson and Johns. Try to think of a few more examples yourself.)
The Highland families
tended towards the Celtic practice of indicating this same relationship by adding "Mac" (son of) to the beginning of a Gaelic
name. In the case of Iain (the Gaelic equivalent of "John"), the patronymic was MacIain. In the Scottish Lowlands,
the first people to acquire surnames were the Norman nobles, who came from France with William the Conqueror, some of whom,
though not all, were of Viking ancestry.
Let us reflect for a moment : in the case of our own Clan progenitor, the man named "John" was not originally called Johnstone,
or anything like it, because he was simply John. Neither could his son, Gilbert, have been called Johnstone, or anything like
it at his birth. He could only have been called John’s son, (i.e. Johnson) according to the established pattern.
His father, John, had lands granted to him by the Bruce family. It was only then that those lands became known as "John’s
tun" or "John's farm". ("Tun" in the Germanic languages means "farm" or "lands", and is related to the Celtic "dun" and
Old Irish "dún".) His son Gilbert took to using the surname Johnstun in the period from 1170 - 1194. Thus, he
was the first member of the family to take the surname Johnstone derived from the lands granted to his father. It is
as well, however, to remember that he must have been originally a Johnson..........
This reasoning seems to be supported by Fraser in The Annandale Family Book of Johnstones, where he states: "Either
from the first Bruce of Annandale, who settled there in 1124 or his immediate successor, 'John', father of Sir Gilbert Johnstone,
obtained the lands of Johnstone. They were situated in the heart of Bruce's great Lordship, and not far distant from his famous
castle of Lochmaben. 'John' of the single name, either by inheritance or gift from Robert Bruce, received lands in Annandale
and bestowed his own name on them, calling them 'Johnstun', now 'Johnstone', both estate and parish. His son Gilbert is
called indifferently Gilbert, son of John, or Gilbert de Johnstune".