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Kings & Queens of Scottish History
CLAN JOHNSTON

THE NATIONAL HISTORY OF SCOTLAND

IN THE BEGINNING
 
THE tribe known as the Scottii were asylum seekers in the 5th century AD, leaving Ireland and establishing the Kingdom of Dalriada.  Its capital was at Dunadd in Argyle.
At first the fought the native Picts.  But the were all Celts and eventually decided that anything was better than the norse of English.  So in 843, the Picts and Scots joined forces under KENNETH MACALPIN, who was from a mixed marriage.  He moved to the Pictish capital at Scone, Perthshire, with the Stone of Destiny, on which Kings were crowned.  His dynasty lasted two centurys. 
::::SEE:: The Stone of Dynasty and the Scottish Crown Jewels at EDINBURGH CASTLE and DUNADD FORT, Argyll.

IS THIS A DAGGER??
 
UNDER Malcome II and Duncan I, English speaking Lothian was won from Northumbria and Strathclyde was annexed.  But the crown was still elected from members of the royal family instead of the elsdest son.  This is why there were so many disputes and murders.  In fact MACBETH, had as Shakespeare claimed.  He had stepson LULACH were killed by MALCOME CANMORE, who presided over an influx of English refugees after the Norman Conquest of 1066.  His descendant WILLIAM THE LION adopted the lion Rampant. 
::::SEE::: Dumbarton ('fort of the Britons') Castle

THE SEEDS OF WAR

THE English influence that began in earnest with MALCOME CANMORE continued.  It reached its peak with DAVID I, who invited many Angol-Normans to settle in Scotland, hoping their feudal system would strengthen his power.
One resulte was that< with the death of Margaret, Maid of Norway - the first of scotlands two Queens - many scots, such as JOHN BALLIOL above were confused as to were their allergiance lay.  BALLIOL was at Berwick Castle but the Wars of Independance werne't far off.
::::SEE:::: BERWICK CASTLE

THE STEWARTS
 
DAVID II> son of ROBER THE BRUCE, fought of fseveral English bids to invade Scotland including the one led by EDWARD BALLIOL< son of TOOM TABARD.  But DAVID failed to provide an heir and in 1371, the succession passed to ROBERT STEWART, the son of ROBERT THE BRUCE'S daughter MARJORIE, who had married WALTER STEWART, the 6th hereditary High Steward of Scotland. Robert fathered 13 legitimate and eight illgitimate children but decreased his eldest legitimate son, JOHN, would succeed as ROBERT III.
The newKing was so fearful of his brother, the DUKE OF ALBANY, that he sent his son, the future JAMES I, away from Scotland.  However JAMES was murdered by conspiators in 1437.  His descenants, KING JAMES II,III, IV and V led lives haunted by plots and assassinations.
Even MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS, the second woman to rule Scotland when crowned at Stirling, failed to break the cycle of murder.  Her  confident  Rizzio was murdered by her husband LORD DARNLEY and she was suspended of plotting Darleys murder. MARY was judically murdered by her cusin, QUEEN ELIZABETH  of ENGLAND, who suspected her of a catholic plot.  But Elizabeth died heirless and in 1603 MARYS SON< JAMES VI, succeeded her as JAMES I of the UNITED KINGDOM.
::::SEE::::STIRLING CASTLE <>HOLYROOD PALACE

THE PRETENDERS
 
THE House of stewart, now using the French spelling Stuart, contininued to rule - interrupted by OLIVER CROMWELL'S commonwealth in the 1660s  until JAMES II was deposed in 1688 for catholic sympathies.  But his supporters, knowen as Jacobites staged several rebelions. The last in 1745 was led by BONNIE PRINCE CHARLIE.  The defeat of The YOUNG PRETENDERS largley high land ARMY at CULLODEN heralded the destruction of the traditional SCOTTISH clan system.
::::SEE:::: CULLODEN

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